Brazilian carnival – travel and Tourism
The Samba schools made the carnival in Rio de Janeiro, one of the brightest and most impressive spectacles in the world. Brazilians believe their country is the birthplace of carnival
Two weeks before they lay him all the important things for later. Four days of festivities. At this time the life in the country comes to a standstill – all dancing. The media focused only on carnival. Wherever you look – everywhere he. Yeah and abroad, who would not say with the Brazilian about his homeland, and sooner or later inevitably starts talking about the carnival, because these concepts are inseparable. After all, carnival is called “Brazilian”, thus emphasizing the origin of this festival, unique in their scope and intensity of emotions, covering everyone.
Much less is known about the ever-increasing role in the carnival Samba school . The first of these was officially opened in Mangueira in 1928 it appeared other, but in that time they had no relation to the carnival. These schools, which originated in the poor neighborhoods, where many blacks were far from the festival, which took place on the Central streets, remaining the entertainment of wealthy people. The poor had fun almost “illegal”; the police would not let them sing and dance wherever they wanted.
Still, Samba has gradually established itself as the most vivid form of expression of the black population, who survived three and a half centuries of slavery. She quickly won the favelas of Rio, the inhabitants of which began to organize their own parades. In 1935, the authorities in Rio de Janeiro officially allowed to spend the carnival in its folk form.
The Samba schools began to provide government subsidies. Not had up to this time a certain structure, they now have found their own status, has received its own premises, has created committees of management, collecting monthly payments. Experiencing the Federation of schools of Samba. Now in the processions could participate only its members. This “bureaucratization” accelerated with increasing interest in the carnival with the direction of the state, as well as an audience hungry unforgettable spectacle.
Since 70-ies of the school transformed into real “factory of the carnival” . open all year round and equipped with all necessary infrastructure. Phantasmagoria marches – the result of a long effort of which the viewer is unaware. Left in the distant past are the days when the Samba schools were connected to the organization of the carnival only to begin. Balls and rehearsals, which for a fee, allowed the audience (they attract up to 150 thousand spectators), commercialization of cultural products (dance group), help bankers in conducting bicho (a kind of lottery) bring in much more revenue than the monthly contributions of members of the Association of Samba.
The creation of this special institution demanded and relevant staff, accountants, lawyers, administrators – representing the majority of entirely different social circles than its founders. Schools had to adapt to their tastes. The largest of them are striving, like clubs for the middle class, to be located in more prestigious places. But every year, a miracle occurs: despite its evolution, and organized training, carnival, splashing out once from the depths of people’s souls, every time it re-acquires its magical charm.
So describe the celebration of Brazilian writers Amauri, Iorio and Il araújo: “Ahead rides the chariot (abre-alas), symbolizing school. It is followed by the wagon, decorated in the form of various allegories. And between them are dancers. Members giving orders. Leading members slowly take their positions. Conductors of orchestras tune. Here at the signal, the main singer, standing on a chariot, begins to sing the theme of the Samba – samba-enredo. Following the old tradition, the participants listen to her, then, picking up the melody, orchestra enters and everyone starts to sing, repeating the main theme two or three times, not moving, waiting for stragglers. And suddenly, like magic, everything is in motion. Begins the most beautiful festival in the world folk art. Slowly, with singing and dancing passes a tuple by calling around joy and rapture.” For audiences willing to pay for this performance, prepared with stadium seats. They fence off mobile fences, to enjoy the spectacle could only audience who paid for admission. True, it invariably causes protests of those who cannot afford such luxuries.
Since 1984 carnival parades are on a dedicated alley. It is built on the Avenida Marquis of Sapucaí by the famous Brazilian architect Oscar Nimara and is designed for 850 thousand spectators (the length of the alley 700 m, width 13 m). The climax of the carnival comes on Sunday and Monday, when the Samba schools of the first category. The procession each one takes an hour and a half.
Everything is subject to clear regulations: the evaluation system followed by the jury, the time of passage of each school, the number of participants, the size of floats representing different allegory, theme Samba samba-enredo)(, its performers, the order of the elements in the speeches of schools. Today, each school chooses a theme. But it wasn’t always. True, the original freedom of choice existed. But from 1939 to the end of the 60s consistently by successive dictators imposed topics, illustrating national history. Then under pressure from the public schools became free again. Gradually the theme of Samba gaining musical space carnival (in addition to marches, it sounds at balls while dancing in the streets, on radio, on television), becoming the product of the mass culture industry.
The popularity of the carnival allows TV. It not only broadcasts from Rio de Janeiro all over the country, the parade of Samba schools of the first category, but also introduces the regional balls and processions by local and national TV channels. In 1995. these shows looked 65 million viewers. Another important feature is the new carnavalesco, specialist in organising processions. It offers the theme, creates mannequins characters and allegories, thinks accessories, selects the necessary fabric, find color, directs installation of the composition, organizes rehearsals, and more recently intervenes in the choice of text for Samba.
Many of these people are intellectuals, and experts in the field of choreography, visual arts, folklore. Under their influence the carnival procession turned in tremendous performances, the scale of which is not necessarily measured by number of participants (each school puts 3-4 thousand people), but also the richness of colors and the harmony of movements and rhythms. However, the attitude to such splendor is not always unambiguous. Largely achieved his critics, requiring natural simplicity and a return to traditions. However – that’s really a true miracle! even these metamorphoses are unable to cool the fervor, the excitement and joy of ordinary people. These nameless men and women are the true creators of the show. They are willing to spend their nine-month salary for a few days tales. Them and magic is born of the breath of the carnival: “I think I’m in heaven. Sometimes, dizzy, I lay down on the ground and cry”.